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Rethinking the Linux Distribution
Pages: 1, 2, 3

A window manager designed specifically for the VNC-based integration illustrated here could replace or augment any window management facilities built directly into Firefox. With multiple tabs open to the same desktop, such a window manager could automatically launch and maximize the desired application, depending on which Firefox tab the user selects.

It should be relatively straightforward to complete the required command path. After all, a VNC applet running inside a tab can already operate a window manager, via the VNC server. This design would allow the browser to control multiple remote applications, as well as local programs.

The specialized window manager could also maintain support for a traditional desktop view (as shown in Figure 3), or a tool similar to Skippy could provide this functionality. In addition, a compositing feature could generate window controls in the form of transparent HUD-style overlays (such as those used in aircraft) instead of traditional window decoration. The idea is not to compete with Compiz or Beryl for visual sophistication, but to provide a very compact interface, which focuses the user's attention on a just a single underlying task. Firefox itself would be the desktop environment, coordinating multiple tasks.

There are also alternatives to VNC (in various stages of development) for integrating X-based applications with Firefox. The WeirdX Java-based X server is one possibility. The WeirdMind project integrates WeirdX with the MindTerm SSH client (also in Java), giving encrypted shell and X access via the browser. Unfortunately, this project only supports the SSH1 protocol, and there are no recent updates.

The NoMachine NX Server (which won the Linux Journal/LinuxWorld 2006 award for best integration solution) offers fast remote X access. There is a FOSS version of the product (FreeNX) but the Java applet required to integrate with the browser is proprietary. The Univ-RX project is developing a FOSS Java applet that should work with FreeNX.

In summary, a complete Firefox desktop is perhaps not ready today, but with some work on integrating the components, it should be possible to produce one quickly. This would be an important step toward a consistent interface between web applications and traditional local programs. It also translates well to future portable devices, where a tabbed interface would ease navigation and make efficient use of the smaller screen space. Since the web browser will almost certainly be a central part of such devices, it is a good choice for implementing the overall user environment.

Overall, the Firefox desktop should encourage a move toward mashup suites of online and installed code, instead of monolithic, standalone software of either type. Now, the distinction between local and remote applications really begins to disappear.

The Free Web OS

The logical conclusion of the above refactorings may well be the Web OS. It would, however, be a free (FOSS) Web OS, not a proprietary one. This, in turn, is what may finally allow broad adoption of the technology. If only a few large suppliers offer such services, then the Web OS must overcome the steep reluctance of customers to give up control of their data, reluctance which may have doomed Microsoft's Hailstorm, and could yet harm Google Apps. The free Web OS, however, supports many more options for deployment, to better suit the needs of different users.

For example, ISPs know Linux well. The have provided managed hosting on this platform for awhile; some are now adding virtual private servers as well. For them to offer the Web OS, reached via the route described here, is not much more difficult than installing another Linux distribution. Many small and medium organizations may get better personal service from a local, trusted ISP than from a large supplier.

Similar arguments apply inside the corporate datacenter. With generic Linux boxes running a free Web OS, organizations can get most of the benefits, while retaining full control of their data.

Of course, products from large suppliers, such as Windows Live and Google Apps, will continue to have an important role. They will, however, be part of a diverse Web OS universe, a fact that may ultimately make them more successful than if they stood alone.

How will the free Web OS work? To fully understand any Web OS, you must consider at least the client machine, in addition to the server to which it connects. From the client's perspective, it is possible to use software in three major ways:

  • Wholly local (such as the Linux kernel)
  • Some components local (e.g., Firefox plugins), others online
  • Wholly online

Variations include downloading local code in binary form or compiling it from source (the approach used by Gentoo), and online code designed for multiple browsers or a single browser (such as Firefox 3.0).

Clearly, a pure Web OS is impossible; a kernel must run wholly on the client, for example. The exact mixture of components, however, can be very flexible in a free Web OS. This should allow multiple system flavors to emerge. In the future, it may even be possible to just go to a trusted site, and start using any application right in the browser, even if some (or all) of the components will be installed locally at first launch.

Advanced users may choose to run more software on their workstations, and assemble suites of online components on their own. Other users may choose a single Web OS provider, and run that provider's set of applications. Just like it is readily possible to switch ISPs today, a competitive Web OS environment will allow customers to select services from different vendors, piece by piece.

A Note on Governance

As mentioned earlier, it is my hope that the arguments presented here will create a discussion, from which genuine improvements will emerge. To this end, it is necessary to mention a few important things about project governance and the nature of debate.

Governance is a critical topic to the world at large, and FOSS is no exception. In a recent interview, Debian's founder argued that process paralysis is hurting the distribution. Also, members of the Subversion team gave an entire Google talk about dealing with "poisonous people" on a project. Sometimes, online discussion can even degenerate into something far more serious, such as the threats made against Kathy Sierra. Tim O'Reilly has proposed a blogger's code of conduct in response to that incident.

Proper governance, however, needs a sound philosophy, a model, in order to function. Of course, nothing could be accomplished without the community's desire for fairness and justice, but the model is also essential. The community is the musician, the model is the instrument. Interacting with others based on the wrong set of assumptions will lead to problems, including process paralysis, the emergence of "poisonous people", or worse.

When considering FOSS governance and online discussions, such as the future of the Linux distribution, the notion of a scientific inquiry is particularly suitable. Just like FOSS emerged from the academic world to transform other areas (including business), so the basic practices of science can inform projects outside the realm of research.

Here are the best parts of the scientific approach.

  • A willingness to explore the unknown, including unusual ideas, in a rational search for truth.
  • An understanding that even negative results (failures) provides valuable information.
  • A commitment to openness; all decisions have a definite, logical basis.
  • Explicit recognition of every contributor.
  • An effort to find prior work, to better inform current efforts.
  • Emphasis on gathering hard evidence and reproducible results.

Note that the common FOSS practice of encouraging patches from newcomers is an example of the scientific approach. New ideas are welcome, but it is important to show something that actually works.

The recognition of the value of negative results is in contrast to the prevailing strategy of blaming individuals for failure. The latter approach is actually of limited corrective value, and often leads to the kind of hostile situations cited at the beginning of this section. The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) offers a striking example of the value of learning from mistakes. Operated by NASA, the ASRS encourages detailed, penalty-free reporting of errors in the field of aviation, then anonymizes and publishes the results. The idea has clear interdisciplinary potential. Kim Vicente's book, The Human Factor, describes how hospitals which adopted ASRS-style techniques in place of traditional focus on individual guilt saw medical errors decline 90 percent.

If we adopt the spirit of scientific inquiry, then the resulting discussion has a chance to stimulate the emergence of a new type of platform. The subject will likely turn out to be much deeper than the familiar "Linux on the Desktop" or even "Linux for the Enterprise" debates. After all, the vastness and openness of the FOSS codebase is good for more than just following the existing trends. It can also uncover new trails.

Further Reading

This section highlights some of the items referenced in the article, and provides supplementary materials. The URLs are fully specified in the text, so that they show up on any printed copies.

The Pardus Linux distribution has published a number of articles about their work. In particular, "Speeding up Linux: One step further with Pardus" offers many insights ( Also important is "Python in Pardus", which details the team's experience with the language (

The IPython documentation is necessary for anyone wishing to use this tool for system administration ( The section "IPython as a system shell" is particularly relevant ( A helpful note on this topic can also be found at

If you wish to use Matplotlib together with IPython (as shown in the article) the project homepage includes a reference to the plotting commands; scroll until you reach it ( You may also benefit from their tutorial (

The O'Reilly Network article "A New Visualization for Web Server Logs" also contains interesting information on high-level languages and visualization for system administration ( It describes an approach using Gnuplot and Perl.

The discussion of the Mozilla OS offers lots of insightful ideas ( Also valuable is the Firefox 3.0 overview from PC Magazine, "Inside Firefox 3.0, Alpha 3: Gran Paradiso" (

A fascinating experience with using SaaS for everything (list of applications included) is available at

For an excellent introduction to experimenting with X windows, see the Linux Journal column, "Cooking with Linux--Can't Get Enough Desktops!" (

On the issue of governance, read the "Call for a Blogger's Code of Conduct" ( Most importantly, the widespread strategy of blaming individuals is the most likely cause of hostility on FOSS projects and online discussions. Kim Vicente's book, The Human Factor, provides a fascinating account of the ASRS approach, which delivers far superior results (

Appendix A: Special Delivery

The packaging and delivery of Linux distributions is a difficult problem today. Current distributions are expensive and complicated to host, due to their size. Last year, Mepis faced this problem. The highly regarded distribution (number five on DistroWatch over the past 12 months at the time of writing) violated the GPL by not hosting the source code for every binary which it included.

Of course, Mepis was not trying to hide anything (the complete source code was readily available elsewhere) but it was still contrary to the GPL. The fault here is not with Mepis or the FSF. It lies in the fact that existing hosting, mirroring, packaging and delivery systems (which have served us well in the past) are beginning to show their age. Now is the time to consider what comes next.

As mentioned at the beginning of this article, diversity is the strength of FOSS. It should be easier for new distributions to get started. At the same time, having lots of identical, and nearly identical, programs floating around on the internet is wasteful and confusing. Which version is the canonical one, released by the project's authors? How do the available variants differ from one another?

What if the package management utilities were to download only the canonical project sources, via BitTorrent? These utilities could then use patches to "personalize" the code for a particular distribution. This approach is similar to how Gentoo works today.

Using BitTorrent in the package manager shields the user from having deal with torrents directly. It also makes it possible to create a package-level repository of torrent seeds, which many distributions could share.

For source distributions, the seeds would derive directly from the released code for each project. For binary distributions, perhaps the Linux Standard Base (LSB), which has made binary compatibility between distributions its goal, could operate the required seed repository.

Such a "FOSS seed bank" would consume minimal resources. Downloading via BitTorrent makes far better use of the network than the traditional host-and-mirror approach. In fact, the need for mirroring should decline significantly.

In general, we should pay more attention to the location and flow of FOSS code across the global internet. Better organization of the entire distributed FOSS codebase, with clearly visible lineage information between projects, would allow everyone to use this vast universe of resources much more effectively.

Google already offers Code Search, and a microformat for licenses also exists. Perhaps a few microformats, and a suitable search engine, would be the first step.

Appendix B: Green Software

Environmental concerns closely follow the emergence of the Web OS. Such services will require more machines at the datacenter. Even today, however, electricity consumption of large server farms is a serious problem, for the environment as well as the bottom line.

Disposal of computer equipment (e-waste) is also an issue. These unwanted machines contain many poisonous substances, and various governments are implementing new taxes to deal with the resulting toxic garbage.

Of course, there is evidence that FOSS, which requires fewer computing resources and less frequent upgrades, is already friendlier to the environment. What is needed is a specific effort towards green software, in parallel to the movement towards the Web OS. Programs which emphasize efficient use of computer resources (memory, CPU, disk, and bandwidth) delay obsolescence, while requiring fewer machines in the first place. This, in turn, reduces e-waste and electricity consumption. Saving computing resources translates directly into preservation of actual physical resources.

Nor are kernel changes, or virtualization alone sufficient to create green software. First of all, developers of such system-level software must already consider resource conservation, otherwise the resulting platform would be impractical for running application code. Therefore, rethinking resource use at the application level would likely uncover many more unrealized efficiency gains. Also, virtualization, which provides a great efficiency benefit by consolidating underutilized hardware, may actually hurt performance under peak loads.

The Linux distribution, however, is more than just a kernel, or system-level tools. It includes thousands of applications, assembled into entire environments. A "SaaS Ready" distribution can provide built-in examples, frameworks, network protocols, and benchmarking suites (complete with GUIs) to guide developers in writing more efficient applications. In turn, careful attention to conservation at the application level should reduce resource requirements (particularly electricity) that would hamper the adoption of SaaS and the emergence of the Web OS.

George Belotsky is a software architect who has done extensive work on high-performance internet servers, as well as hard real-time and embedded systems.

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