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Monitoring RAID with NetSaint

by Dan Langille
03/17/2005

In my previous article, I talked about my RAID-5 installation. It has been up and running for a few days now. I'm pleased with the result. However, RAID can fail. When it does, you need to take action before the next failure. Two failures close together, no matter how rare that may be, will involve a complete reinstall1.

I have been using NetSaint since first writing about it back in 2001. NetSaint development has continued under a new name: Nagios. I continue to use NetSaint; it does what I need.

The monitoring consists of three main components:

  1. NetSaint (which I assume you have installed and configured). I'm guessing my tools will also work with Nagios.
  2. netsaint_statd, which provides remote monitoring of hosts, as patched with my change.
  3. check_adptraid.pl, the plugin that monitors the RAID status.

With these simple tools, you'll be able to monitor your RAID array.

1For my setup, at least. You might know of RAID setups that allow for multiple failures, but mine does not.

Monitoring the Array

Monitoring the health of your RAID array is vital to the health of your system. Fortunately, Adaptec has a tool for this. It is available within the FreeBSD sysutils/asr-utils port. After installing the port, it took me a while to figure out what to use and how to use it. Compounding the problem, a runtime error took me on a little tangent before I could get it running. I will show you how to integrate this utility into your NetSaint configuration.

My first few attempts at running the monitoring tool failed, with this result:

# /usr/local/sbin/raidutil -L all
Engine connect failed: Open

After some Googling, I found that the problem was shared memory. It seems that with PostgreSQL running, raidutil could not acquire what it needed. I hunted around, asked questions, and found a few knobs and switches:

# grep SHM /usr/src/sys/i386/conf/LINT
options         SYSVSHM         # include support for shared memory
options         SHMMAXPGS=1025  # max amount of shared memory pages (4k on i386)
options         SHMALL=1025     # max number of shared memory pages system wide
options         SHMMAX="(SHMMAXPGS*PAGE_SIZE+1)"
options         SHMMIN=2        # min shared memory segment size (bytes)
options         SHMMNI=33       # max number of shared memory identifiers
options         SHMSEG=9        # max shared memory segments per process

These kernel options are also available as sysctl values:

$ sysctl -a | grep shm
kern.ipc.shmmax: 33554432
kern.ipc.shmmin: 1
kern.ipc.shmmni: 192
kern.ipc.shmseg: 128
kern.ipc.shmall: 8192
kern.ipc.shm_use_phys: 0
kern.ipc.shm_allow_removed: 0

I stared playing with kern.ipc.shmmax but failed to find anything useful. I went up to some very large values. I suspect someone will suggest appropriate values. I found the solution by modifying the number of PostgreSQL connections, changing the value of max_connections from 40 to 30 in /usr/local/pgsql/data/postgresql.conf. Issuing the following command invoked the changes by restarting the PostgreSQL postmaster:

$ kill -HUP `cat /usr/local/pgsql/data/postmaster.pid`

Now that raidutil can run, the output should resemble:

$ sudo raidutil -L all
RAIDUTIL  Version: 3.04  Date: 9/27/2000  FreeBSD CLI Configuration Utility
Adaptec ENGINE  Version: 3.04  Date: 9/27/2000  Adaptec FreeBSD SCSI Engine

#  b0 b1 b2  Controller     Cache  FW    NVRAM     Serial     Status
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
d0 -- -- --  ADAP2400A      16MB   3A0L  CHNL 1.1  BF0B111Z0B4Optimal

Physical View
Address    Type              Manufacturer/Model         Capacity  Status
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
d0b0t0d0   Disk Drive (DASD) ST380011 A                 76319MB   Optimal
d0b1t0d0   Disk Drive (DASD) ST380011 A                 76319MB   Optimal
d0b2t0d0   Disk Drive (DASD) ST380011 A                 76319MB   Replaced Drive
d0b3t0d0   Disk Drive (DASD) ST380011 A                 76319MB   Optimal

Logical View
Address       Type              Manufacturer/Model      Capacity  Status
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
d0b0t0d0     RAID 5 (Redundant ADAPTEC  RAID-5         228957MB  Reconstruct 94%
 d0b0t0d0    Disk Drive (DASD) ST380011 A              76319MB   Optimal
 d0b1t0d0    Disk Drive (DASD) ST380011 A              76319MB   Optimal
 d0b2t0d0    Disk Drive (DASD) ST380011 A              76319MB   Replaced Drive
 d0b3t0d0    Disk Drive (DASD) ST380011 A              76319MB   Optimal


Address    Max Speed  Actual Rate / Width
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
d0b0t0d0   50 MHz     100 MB/sec    wide
d0b1t0d0   50 MHz     100 MB/sec    wide
d0b2t0d0   50 MHz     100 MB/sec    wide
d0b3t0d0   10 MHz     100 MB/sec    wide

Address    Manufacturer/Model        Write Cache Mode (HBA/Device)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
d0b0t0d0   ADAPTEC  RAID-5           Write Back / --
 d0b0t0d0  ST380011 A                -- / Write Back
 d0b1t0d0  ST380011 A                -- / Write Back
 d0b2t0d0  ST380011 A                -- / Write Back
 d0b3t0d0  ST380011 A                -- / Write Back

#  Controller     Cache  FW    NVRAM     BIOS   SMOR      Serial
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
d0 ADAP2400A      16MB   3A0L  CHNL 1.1  1.62   1.12/79I  BF0B111Z0B4

#  Controller      Status     Voltage  Current  Full Cap  Rem Cap  Rem Time
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
d0 ADAP2400A       No battery

Address    Manufacturer/Model        FW          Serial        123456789012
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
d0b0t0d0   ST380011 A                3.06 1ABW6AY1             -X-XX--X-O--
d0b1t0d0   ST380011 A                3.06 1ABEYH4P             -X-XX--X-O--
d0b2t0d0   ST380011 A                3.06 1ABRWK0E             -X-XX--X-O--
d0b3t0d0   ST380011 A                3.06 1ABRDS5E             -X-XX--X-O--

Capabilities Map:  Column 1 = Soft Reset
                   Column 2 = Cmd Queuing
                   Column 3 = Linked Cmds
                   Column 4 = Synchronous
                   Column 5 = Wide 16
                   Column 6 = Wide 32
                   Column 7 = Relative Addr
                   Column 8 = SCSI II
                   Column 9 = S.M.A.R.T.
                   Column 0 = SCAM
                   Column 1 = SCSI-3
                   Column 2 = SAF-TE
   X = Capability Exists, - = Capability does not exist, O = Not Supported

The output shows:

  • I'm using an Adaptec 2400A (ADAP2400A).
  • I have four drives, all ST380011 and 80MB (76319MB).
  • I'm running RAID-5, giving me 228957MB of space.
  • The array is rebuilding and is 98% through the reconstruction.
  • I replaced the drive on Channel 0 (d0b2t0d0).

It is a subset of this information that you can use to determine whether all is well with the RAID array. My next task was experimentation to determine what raidutil reports when the array is in different states.

Note: I did not actually replace d0b2t0d0 as the output above indicates. As part of my RAID testing, I shut down the system, disconnected the power to one drive, started the system, verified that it still ran, shut down again, reconnected the drive, powered up again, and started to rebuild the array.

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