PAM stands for Pluggable Authentication Modules, a system for separating authentication mechanisms from the application.
If an application is PAM-enabled, the system administrator is responsible for determining the authentication methods used, and PAM is responsible for performing the authentication. This lets the application developer concentrate on writing the main application -- and ensures that the application isn't made out-of-date solely because of an outdated authentication schema.
This is Part Two of a two-part series on writing PAM-capable applications. In Part One, we provided necessary background information and support mechanisms, and outlined the conversation mechanism which the application must provide to let the module communicate with the user.
This part covers how to call PAM authentication, account management, session management, and token-changing functions. It also covers response codes, setting credentials, and supplying a default configuration for your application.
Unless otherwise stated, the definitions for functions and types described in this article are in
This function initializes PAM and provides the application with a PAM handle, which is used in the rest of the functions to uniquely identify this instance of the application.
The service name parameter is the unique PAM name of the application, used in the PAM configuration files.
The username can be NULL if not known, and the module will call back later, using the conversation function, to request it.
pam_conversation parameter is the pointer to the conversation structure. The
pamh parameter is a pointer which will be filled with the PAM handle.
The function returns
PAM_SUCCESS if it succeeds, and one of several failures codes if it doesn't.
pam_handle_t *pamh=NULL; extern int pam_start(const char *service_name, const char *user, const struct pam_conv *pam_conversation, pam_handle_t **pamh);
Calling this function asks PAM to call the modules' authentication methods. This authenticates the user, using the conversation function to interact with the user. If it succeeds, it returns
PAM_SUCCESS. Failure is indicated with any of a number of flags.
Authentication is usually the first of the four module types to be called.
This function is usually called with the flag
PAM_DISALLOW_NULL_AUTHTOK. If this flag is set and the authentication database has no stored token for the username, the authentication fails.
extern int pam_authenticate(pam_handle_t *pamh, int flags);
The account management function verifies that the user account is valid, and that the user is permitted to start a session at this time. PAM account modules are available to limit accounts by time, number of users, Unix-like "nologin" blocks, and a variety of other methods.
Account is usually called after authentication, and before the session begins.
An account module will return
PAM_NEW_AUTHTOK_REQD if the authentication token has expired, which allows the application to require the user to create a new authentication token. If you receive this return value, you may wish to call
pam_chauthtok(), then try the account again.
PAM_SUCCESS if the account is valid, and any of a number of flags to indicate failure.
extern int pam_acct_mgmt(pam_handle_t *pamh, int flags);
After the user is authenticated and the account is verified as currently usable, many authentication methods require the authenticator to set credentials. Credentials might be group membership in a Unix system, or a Kerberos ticket.
The application should call this function before the session is started.
extern int pam_setcred(pam_handle_t *pamh, int flags);
These functions open and close authenticated sessions. The
close session function can be called from a different application, provided the application has the PAM handle.
extern int pam_open_session(pam_handle_t *pamh, int flags); extern int pam_close_session(pam_handle_t *pamh, int flags);
pam_chauthtok changes authentication tokens, using the conversation function to interact with the user.
Calling this function with the flag
PAM_CHANGE_EXPIRED_AUTHTOK will instruct it to only change the token if the token has actually expired. I recommend doing this if the call is triggered by the account module returning
This module type is usually called after the session is started, but it can be called immediately following account management, to refresh expired authentication tokens.
extern int pam_chauthtok(pam_handle_t *pamh, const int flags);
This function closes the PAM application. Call it when you no longer need the PAM handle, to allow the modules to be called and perform their cleanups -- freeing memory, wiping data structures clean, and disabling tokens.
pam_status parameter indicates whether PAM was successful or not, which helps modules determine what cleanup has to be done. It can be useful to use one variable to receive the return value of all PAM calls, and bracket most PAM calls with
if (retval == PAM_SUCCESS). You can then call
pam_end with the return value as the
extern int pam_end(pam_handle_t *pamh, int pam_status);
All PAM functions return either
PAM_SUCCESS or one of the following failure codes. It is worth noting that I have had PAM functions return failure codes not listed in the documentation.
The PAM function
pam_strerror() displays the text string associated with each failure code.
extern const char *pam_strerror(pam_handle_t *pamh, int errnum);
Listed failure codes are:
This function is in
<security/pam_misc.h>. Linux-PAM provides a function to securely duplicate strings. A copy of the parameter is returned. If there isn't enough memory to duplicate the string, a NULL is returned.
extern char *x_strdup(const char *s)
In your application's installation script, check for a file with your service name in
/etc/pam.d. If it doesn't exist, create one with an appropriate default PAM-authentication sequence for your program. You can find an acceptable default PAM configuration, with explanations, in
/etc/pam.d/login in the default installation of many Linux systems. Another alternative is:
auth requisite pam_securetty.so auth required pam_unix.so account required pam_unix.so session required pam_unix.so password required pam_cracklib.so retry=3 minlen=6 difok=3 password required pam_unix.so use_authtok nullok md5
If a file with your service name exists, you may have a service-name clash with another application, or the file may have been installed by a previous version of your application.
xstrdupin the documentation is
x_strdupin the code (confirmed with Andrew Morgan).
PAM_AUTHTOKEN_REQDin the documentation seems to be
PAM_NEW_AUTHTOK_REQDin the code.
This article has touched on the most critical aspects of writing PAM-capable applications. For additional details, please do see the Application Developer's Guide.
Jennifer Vesperman is the author of Essential CVS. She writes for the O'Reilly Network, the Linux Documentation Project, and occasionally Linux.Com.
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